Laser Cutting: The Basics


Laser cutting is a cutting-edge technology that has transformed the world of fabrication and design. Whether you’re an, established manufacturer, an aspiring maker, an artist, or an entrepreneur looking to explore the endless possibilities of laser cutting, this comprehensive guide will walk you through the basics of this fascinating technology.

What is Laser Cutting?

At its core, laser cutting is a precision manufacturing process that utilizes a high-powered laser beam to cut through materials with exceptional accuracy. The laser beam is focused to a specific point, allowing it to generate intense heat that quickly melts or vaporizes the material, creating clean, precise cuts.

Types of Laser Cutting Machines

There are several types of laser cutting machines, but the two most common ones are CO2 lasers and fiber lasers:

1. CO2 Lasers: These lasers are ideal for cutting non-metallic materials such as wood, acrylic, leather, and fabrics. They emit a high-intensity infrared beam that is absorbed by the material’s surface, resulting in efficient cutting.

2. Fiber Lasers: Fiber lasers are primarily used for cutting metal materials like stainless steel, aluminum, and copper. They use a fiber-optic cable to deliver the laser beam, enabling precise cutting of thin and thick metals.

Materials Suitable for Laser Cutting

Laser cutting is incredibly versatile, and a wide range of materials can be cut using this technology. Some of the common materials suitable for laser cutting include:

  • Metals: Stainless steel, aluminium, brass, and copper can be cut using fiber lasers for industrial applications.
  • Wood: Softwoods and hardwoods are ideal for intricate designs and engraving.
  • Acrylic: Acrylic offers a smooth and polished edge when laser cut, making it popular for signage and artwork.
  • Paper and Cardboard: Laser cutting allows for precise and intricate paper designs for cards and invitations.
  • Leather: Laser-cut leather is widely used in fashion, accessories, and custom products.

Please note that at GF Laser we only provide a metal cutting service.

How Does Laser Cutting Work?

Laser cutting involves a series of steps to achieve precise cuts:

1. Design Creation: The process starts with creating a digital design using computer-aided design (CAD) software. This design serves as a blueprint for the laser cutting machine to follow.

2. Material Placement: The material to be cut is positioned on the laser cutting bed. The machine ensures it is secured properly for accurate cutting.

3. Laser Focusing: The laser beam is focused on the material’s surface by a lens. The focal point determines the depth of the cut and the overall precision.

4. Cutting Process: The laser beam is activated, and it moves along the predefined path dictated by the digital design. As the laser cuts through the material, the excess material is removed, leaving behind the desired shape.

5. Cooling and Exhaust: To prevent the material from overheating, a cooling system is used. Additionally, an exhaust system helps remove fumes and debris generated during the cutting process, ensuring a clean and safe environment.


Laser cutting is a remarkable technology that has revolutionized manufacturing and design industries. With its ability to achieve intricate details and precise cuts on a wide variety of materials, laser cutting opens up a world of creative possibilities. As a beginner, understanding the basics of this technology sets the foundation for exploring the vast potential that laser cutting offers.